La pandemia de la covid-19 y la acción de los nuevos actores internacionales en el ambito de la governanza global y de la paradiplomacia / The covid-19 pandemic and the action of new international actors in the area of global governance and paradiplomacy

Fernando Rei

Resumo


Resumen

Las actividades internacionales de gobiernos subnacionales, de corporaciones transnacionales y de Organizaciones No Gubernamentales durante las dos primeras décadas del siglo XXI  han suscitado el interés de representantes políticos y académicos. La globalización y la importancia de regímenes internacionales han diluido la distinción entre asuntos domésticos y exteriores, así como de materias públicas o de la sociedad civil, transformando las funciones y responsabilidades entre el Estado y los nuevos atores internacionales. La libre circulación del coronavirus y el colapso de algunos sistemas de salud en el mundo han limitado la capacidad de los Estados para dirigir y hacer frente a esta crisis global. Este artículo se propone a hacer una breve análisis del papel de los nuevos atores internacionales en la gobernanza de la salud ambiental global, particularmente en el contexto de la pandemia de la Covid-19, a través de la identificación de la escasa literatura disponible sobre la cuestión y del acceso a datos y gestión de informaciones de organismos internacionales, de gobiernos descentralizados, de redes paradiplomaticas y de la prensa,  y, al final en conclusión, considerar posibles reflejos de esa crisis del coronavirus en el ámbito de la gobernanza global y en el marco estratégico de la paradiplomacia.

Palabras-clave: Paradiplomacia. Gobernanza. Actores Internacionales. Coronavirus. COVID-19.

 

Abstract

The international activities of sub-national governments, transnational corporations and Non- Governmental Organizations during the first two decades of the 21st century have attracted the interest of political and academic representatives. Globalization and the importance of international regimes have diluted the distinction between domestic and foreign affairs, as well as public or civil society matters, transforming the roles and responsibilities between the State and the new international actors. The free circulation of the coronavirus and the collapse of some health systems in the world have limited the capacity of the States to direct and face this global crisis. Covid-19, like so many other emergency and crisis situations, is having the virtue of increasing aspects that are not superficial at all, but rather structural, geopolitical. Health insecurity is a form of expression equivalent to so many other insecurities that, in turn, reflect the abyss of social and economic divergences that cross societies and territories. This article aims to make a brief analysis of the role of new international actors in the governance of global environmental health, based on the phenomenon of paradiplomacy, particularly in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, when subnational governments of The Americas have managed actions to confront the pandemic that are not aligned with the management (or lack thereof) of the central state, making it essential to attend to local and regional responses. In this sense, the observed methodology searched the specialized literature for the discussion on global governance and the phenomenon of environmental paradiplomacy and identified the documentation and data of international organizations, decentralized governments, paradiplomatic networks and the press related to the action of the new actors in the pandemic. In the end, in conclusion, verify that the new actors have acted in a context in which the pandemic scenario has served to accentuate the inertia of central states with respect to the use of forms of health management and thus consider possible reflections in the field of global governance and in the strategic framework of paradiplomacy.

Key words: Paradiplomacy. Governance. International Actors. Coronavirus. COVID-19.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12957/rdc.2021.50039

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