philosophical discussions with children: an opportunity for experiencing open-mindedness

johanna hawken

Abstract


Children develop and experience numerous thinking skills in the course of a philosophical dialogue, which is the didactic medium for the practice of philosophy with children, since its birth. One of them plays a paramount role in the possibility of true dialogue, as it relies on the meeting of minds: open-mindedness. Furthermore, this concept is omnipresent in the literature about philosophy for children (Lipman, 2003: 172-179 ; Tozzi, 2001, 2002) and thus, requires an exploration and a precis analysis, which is the aim of his article. More precisely, there are three objectives: define the nature and characteristics of open-mindedness, analyse its emergence in philosophical discussions and, moreover, studying its role in the practice of philosophy. Our research (lead in University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne) has shown that certain indicators present in the children’s discourse manifest the occurrence of open-mindedness: reformulation of one another’s words, complementarity of statements, explication of each other’s ideas, establishment of nuances, disagreement on terms and critical thinking. These cognitive acts reveal an intellectual relation between children, so much so as open-mindedness can be defined as a two-dimensional attitude, both as a cognitive disposition enabling the understanding of someone else’s idea and an ethical disposition enabling the acceptance of alterity. Moreover, it signals an ethical posture: the capacity to take embrace the words of others, without necessarily agreeing, the ability to take into account an alternative view on the world. The research hypothesis, that is the result of seven years research in the French town of Romainville (East of Paris) is, therefore, the following: philosophical discussions constitute an opportunity for children to experience open-mindedness as a crucial thinking skill and ethical posture.

Keywords


open-mindedness; dialogue; thinking skill; alterity; interaction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chirouter, E. (2007), Lire, réfléchir et débattre à l’école élémentaire : La littérature de jeunesse pour aborder des questions philosophiques, Paris: Hachette.

Daniel, M.-F. (2005), Pour l’apprentissage d’une pensée critique en primaire, Québec: Les Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Fisher, R. (2008), Teaching thinking. Philosophical Enquiry in the classroom, London: Continuum.

Gregory, M. R. (2000), Care as a goal of Democratic Education, Journal of Moral Education, 29 (4): 445-461.

Hawken, J. (2016), Philosopher avec les enfants. Enquête théorique et expérimentale sur une pratique de l’ouverture d’esprit, Paris: Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne.

Lipman, M. (1988), Philosophy goes to school, Philadelphie, Temple University Press, 1988.

Lipman, M., Oscanyan, F., Sharp, A. (1900), Philosophy in the classroom, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2nd edition.

Lipman, Matthew, « Caring as Thinking », in revue Inquiry: Thinking across the Disciplines, vol. 15, n°1, 1995.

Lipman, M. (2003), À l’école de la pensée, trad. fr. N. Decostres, Bruxelles, De Boeck.

Mead, G. H. (2015), Mind, self and society (1934), Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Mendus, S. (2004), Article « Tolérance », Dictionnaire d’éthique et de philosophie morale, tome 2, dir. M. Canto-Sperber, Paris: PUF, 1996.

Piaget, J., Inhelder B. (1966), La psychologie de l’enfant, Paris: PUF.

Peirce, C.S. (2002), Œuvres 1 : Pragmatisme et pragmaticisme ; Œuvres II : Pragmatisme et sciences normatives éd. TIERCELIN, C. & THIBAUD P., Paris: Cerf.

Pettier, J.-C. (2004), Apprendre à philosopher, Lyon: Chronique Sociale.

Tozzi, M. (2001), L’éveil de la pensée réflexive à l’école primaire, Paris: Hachette Education, CNDP.

Tozzi, M. (2002, dir.), Nouvelles pratiques philosophiques en classe, enjeux et démarches, Rennes: Cndp-Crdp de Bretagne.

Trovato, V. (2004), L’enfant philosophe. Essai philopédagogique, Paris: L’Harmattan.

Vygotski, L. (2003), Pensée et langage, trad. F. Sève, 1997, Paris: La Dispute.

Worley, P. (2011), The if machine. Philosophical Enquiry in the classroom, Londres: Continuum.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.12957/childphilo.2019.42982

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


childhood & philosophy Creative Commons License
e-issn 1984-5987 | p-issn 2525-5061