Dominação e Denominação: o Etnônimo Pejorativo "Mawia" e os Macondes de Moçambique no Tanganyika Colonial

Felipe Barradas Correia Castro Bastos

Resumo


O artigo aborda o surgimento e a aplicação, a partir da segunda metade do século XIX, de um termo pejorativo utilizado para designar comunidades macondes localizadas ou provenientes de Moçambique no Tanganyika, atual Tanzânia continental. O escopo temporal abrange o emprego do termo por diferentes observadores europeus para indicar como o termo “mawia”, cuja origem antecede o período colonial, foi alçado à categoria de etnônimo e utilizado pelas autoridades alemãs e britânicas do Tanganyika. Para tanto, dá-se enfoque sobre um conjunto heterogêneo de fontes coloniais para rastrear o emprego dessa denominação com o objetivo de evidenciar os impactos negativos do colonialismo na naturalização de identidades socioculturais, e indicar a resistência de macondes de Moçambique radicados na colônia vizinha à denominação “mawia”.


Palavras-chave


Tanzânia/Tanganyika; Moçambique; Colonialismo; Povos macondes.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ADAMS, P. Lindi und sein Hinterland. Berlim: Dietrich Reimer, 1903.

AKISA, Mwerevu. Kwa nini Wamakonde waitwe Wamawia? Mwafrika, Dar es Salaam, 9 mar. 1964. Caderno Barua za Wasomaji.

ALPERS, Edward. “To Seek a Better Life: The Implications of Migration from Mozambique to Tanganyika for Class Formation and Political Behavior”. Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1984, pp. 367 – 388.

ALPERS, Edward. “Trade, State, and Society among the Yao in the Nineteenth Century”. The Journal of African History, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1969, pp. 405 – 420.

ALPERS, Edward. Ivory and Slaves: Changing Patterns of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975.

BARNES, G. Historical: Tribal Legends. Mtwara (Mikindani) District Book, Vol. 1, 1931.

BECKER, Felicitas. Becoming Muslim in Mainland Tanzania, 1890-2000. Oxford University Press, 2008.

BEHR, Hugold F. von. “Die Völker zwischen Rufiyi und Rovuma”. Mitteilungen von Forschungsreisenden und Gelehrten aus den Deutschen Schutzgebieten, Vol. 6, 1893, pp. 69 – 87.

COOPER, Frederick. Colonialism in question: Theory, knowledge, history. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

DANCKELMAN, Freiherr von. “Reise von der Mbampa-Bai am Nyassa-See nach Kisswere am Indischen Ocean: Nach dem Tagebuche des Geologen Lieder”. Mitteilungen von Forschungsreisenden und Gelehrten aus den Deutschen Schutzgebieten, Vol. 10, 1897, pp. 95 – 141.

DE L’ESTOILE, Benoît. “The past as it lives now: an anthropology of colonial legacies”. Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2008, pp. 267 – 279.

DIAS, Jorge. Missão de Estudos das Minorias Étnicas do Ultramar Português: Relatório da Campanha de 1957 (Moçambique e Angola). Lisboa: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, 1958.

FRYER, W. Tribal History and Legends: Makonde Tribe. Mtwara (Lindi) District Book, Vol. 1, 1928.

FÜLLEBORN, Friedrich. Das Deutsche Njassa- und Ruwuma-Gebiet, Land und Leute, nebst über die Schire-Länder. Berlim: Dietrich Reimer, 1906.

GESCHIERE, Peter. The Perils of Belonging: Autochtony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa & Europe. Chicago e Londres: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

GILLMAN, H. Bush Fallowing on the Makonde Plateau. Newala District Book, Vol. 1, 1945, pp. 1 – 14.

GUILLEBAUD, Claude. An Economic Survey of the Sisal Industry of Tanganyika. (Second Revised Edition.). Welwyn: James Nisbet & Co., 1958.

HARRIES, Lyndon. “An Outline of Mawiha Grammar”. Bantu Studies, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 91 – 146.

HICKSON-MAHONY, R. S. Tribal History and Legends: Makonde Tribe. Mtwara (Mikindani) District Book, Vol. 1, 1928.

ILIFFE, John. A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge University Press, 1979.

ISRAEL, Paolo. In Step with the Times: Mapiko Masquerades from Mozambique. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2014.

JERRARD, R. C. The Tribes of Tanganyika: Their Districts, usual Dietary and Pursuits. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer, 1936.

KANUWA, Juma Mabasa. The Role Played by Tanzania in the Liberation Struggle of Southern Africa: The Case of Mozambique 1961 – 1974. Dissertação (Mestrado em História), University of Dar es Salaam, 2003.

KUPER, Adam. The Reinvention of Primitive Society: Transformations of a Myth. Londres e Nova Iorque: Routledge, 2ª Ed., 2005.

LARANJEIRA, Mashinamu na Uhuru: conexões entre a produção de arte makonde e a história política de Moçambique (1950-1974). Tese (Doutorado em História). Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas da Universidade de São Paulo, 2016.

LARGE, J. W. Geographical Distribution: Makonde Matambwe Tribes. Newala District Book, Vol. 3, s/d.

LARGE, J. W. Tribal History and Legends: Makonde Tribe. Newala District Book, Vol. 1, 1928-1929.

LICHEYE, Musa. Wamakonde. Mwafrika, Dar es Salaam, 13 mar. 1964. Caderno Barua za Wasomaji.

LIEBENOW, J. Gus. Colonial Rule and Political Development in Tanzania : The Case of the Makonde. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1971.

LIESEGANG, Gerhard. Sobre as Origens e História dos Maconde (Makonde) de Moçambique. Disponível em: https://www.academia.edu/26940384. Acesso em 10/03/2021.

MAMDANI, Mahmood. Define and Rule: Native as Political Identity. Cambridge e Londres: Harvard University Press, 2012.

MAMDANI, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001.

MEDEIROS, Eduardo. História de Cabo Delgado e do Niassa (c. 1836 – 1929). Maputo: Central Impressora, 1997.

MWANANGE, Twareni. Mawia si Kabila. Mwafrika, Dar es Salaam, 27 mar. 1964. Caderno Barua za Wasomaji.

NAMKUTA, J. P. Mmakonde si Mmawiya. Mwafrika, Dar es Salaam, 23 mar. 1964. Caderno Barua za Wasomaji.

NASSOR, Muhammad H. Guide to the Provincial (Regional) and District Commissioners’ Annual Reports. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of National Culture and Youth, National Archives Division, 1977.

NEIL-TOMLINSON, Barry. “The Nyassa Chartered Company: 1891–1929”. The Journal of African History, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1977, pp. 109 – 128.

O’CALLAGHAN, D. S. Population: Census Figures 1948. Lindi District Book, Vol. 2, 1950.

O’NEILL, Henry. “Journey in the District West of Cape Delgado Bay, Sept.-Oct. 1882”. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 5, No. 7, 1883, pp. 393 – 404.

ORDE-BROWNE, G. St. M. Labour Conditions in East Africa. Londres: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1946.

PALMER, Hilary; NEWITT, Malyn. Northern Mozambique in the Nineteenth Century: The Travels and Explorations of H. E. O’Neill. Boston: Brill, 2016.

PAWLOWICZ, Matthew. “Competition and Ceramics on the East African Coast: Long-Term Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century History at the Swahili Port Town of Mikindani, Tanzania”. History in Africa, 2015, doi:10.1017/hia.2015.11.

PELS, Peter. “Global ‘experts’ and ‘African’ minds: Tanganyika anthropology as public and secret service, 1925-61”. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2011.01719.x.

PELS, Peter. “The Anthropology of Colonialism: Culture, History, and the Emergence of Western Governmentality”. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 26, 1997, pp. 163 – 183.

SHEPPERSON, George. David Livingstone and the Rovuma. Edinburgh University Press, 1965.

TAGUE, Joanna. A War to Build the Nation: Mozambican Refugees, Rural Development, and State Sovereignty in Tanzania, 1964-1975. Tese (Doutorado em História), University of California, Davis, 2012.

TANGANYIKA TERRITORY. Geographical Distribution. Mtwara (Lindi) District Book, Vol. 1, s/d.

TANGANYIKA. African Census Report 1957. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer, 1963.

TANGANYIKA. East African Population Census 1948. Newala District Book, Vol. 2, 1948.

TANGANYIKA. Report of the Committee on Manpower. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer, 1951.

TEMBE, Joel das Neves. “Uhuru na Kazi: recapturing MANU nationalism through the archive”. Kronos, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2013, pp. 257 – 279.

THIONG’O, Ngugi wa. Globalectics: Theory and the Politics of Knowing. Nova Iorque: Columbia University Press, 2012.

TURNBULL, A. M. D. Geographical Distribution: Makonde Tribe. Lindi Province Book, 1928b.

TURNBULL, A. M. D. Tribal History and Legends: Makonde Tribe. Lindi Province Book, 1928a.

WEST, Harry. “Villains, Victims, or Makonde in the Making? Reading the Explorer Henry O’Neill and Listening to the Headman Lishehe”. Ethnohistory, No. 51, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 1 – 43.

WEST, Harry. Sorcery of construction and sorcery of ruin: Power and ambivalence on the Mueda plateau, Mozambique (1882-1994). Tese (Doutorado em Antropologia). University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1997.

WEULE, Karl. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse meiner Ethnographischen Forschungsreise in den Südosten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Berlim: Ernst Mittler und Sohn, 1908.

ZIMMERMAN, Andrew. “‘What Do You Really Want in German East Africa, Herr Professor?’ Counterinsurgency and the Science Effect in Colonial Tanzania”. Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2006, pp. 419 – 461.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.12957/transversos.2021.58423

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2021 Autor concedendo à Revista Transversos o direito de primeira publicação.

REVISTA TRANSVERSOS - ISSN:2179-7528

Laboratório de Estudos das Diferenças e Desigualdades Sociais - UERJ

Campus Francisco Negrão de Lima - Pavilhão João Lyra Filho Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524 - 9° andar - Bloco D, sala 6.

http://www.e-publicacoes.uerj.br/index.php/transversos