Confronto entre nacionalismos: o caso de Taiwan | Clash between nationalisms: the case of Taiwan

Giorgio Romano Schutte

Resumo


Com o ressurgimento da disputa entre China e Estados Unidos, a questão de Taiwan ganhou nova centralidade na política internacional. O artigo explora o surgimento do nacionalismo taiwanês em contraposição ao chinês. Identifica-se, por trás da disputa política, duas abordagens distintas da identidade nacional. De um lado, o primordialismo que leva à afirmação da identidade chinesa dos habitantes de Taiwan. E, de outro, uma abordagem subjetiva ou instrumentalista que sugere um processo de construção dinâmica de uma nova identidade separada da chinesa. Essa disputa não é entre a República Popular da China e Taiwan, mas entre duas concepções no interior de Taiwan, organizadas politicamente em torno do Kuomintang e do Partido Democrático Progressista. A partir da democratização e do fim do regime autoritário, no final da década de 1980, a identidade taiwanesa ganhou mais adesão, não obstante as intensas relações econômicas, comerciais e o intercâmbio no mesmo período.

Palavras-chave: Taiwan; China; Nacionalismos.

ABASTRACT

The re-emergence of the rivalry between China and the US, the Taiwan issue gained new centrality in international politics. This article explores the surge of Taiwanese nationalism in opposition to Chinese nationalism. Behind the political tensions one can identify a clash between two different conceptions of national identity. On one side a primordialist conception that reaffirms the Chinese identity of the inhabitants of Taiwan.  And on the other a subjective, instrumentalist conception that indicates a process of dynamic construction of a new identity separated from the Chinese one. This clash is not between the Popular Republic of China and Taiwan, but between two conceptions inside Taiwan organized politically around the Kuomintang (pan-blue) and the Democratic Progressive Party (pan-green). Since democratization and the end of the authoritarian regime, Taiwanese identity has grown, notwithstanding the intensification of economic, commercial relations and the exchanges between people over the same period.

Keywords: Taiwan; China; Nationalisms.

 

Recebido em 30 mai. 2021 | Aceito em 05 ago. 2021.


Palavras-chave


Taiwan; China; Nacionalismos

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12957/rmi.2021.60090



Direitos autorais 2021 Giorgio Romano Schutte

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