China’s State-Party Nationalism: seeking wealth and power under China’s Dream of Great Rejuvenation | O Nacionalismo do Estado-partido da China: a procura por riqueza e poder no contexto do Sonho Chinês de Grande Rejuvenescimento

Daniel de Oliveira Vasconcelos

Resumo


As economic growth fades, China resorts to nationalism to maintain the regime’s legitimacy and popular support. But Contemporary Chinese nationalism is multifaceted and also embedded in the historical processes that led China to face foreign expansionism and its own backwardness. For this reason, the quest for wealth and power is a permanent force that guides Chinese nationalism. In this article, I lay out the foundations of Chinese nationalism of the late-nineteenth and the first decades of the twentieth centuries. This is followed by the analysis of Chinese nationalism under the CCP rule since 1949, and a final section in which I identify the main trends in contemporary Chinese state-party nationalism. With present-day wealth and power, the CCP and the Chinese society believe it is time to restore China’s “rightful place” in the world. State-party nationalism is reshaping the past to project the future, but it is not a fait accompli.

 Keywords: China; Nationalism; Wealth and Power.

 

RESUMO

Com a desaceleração econômica, a China recorre ao nacionalismo para manter a legitimidade do regime e o apoio popular. Mas o nacionalismo chinês contemporâneo é multifacetado e está inserido nos processos históricos relacionados ao expansionismo estrangeiro e seu próprio atraso. Por isso, a busca por riqueza e poder é uma força permanente do nacionalismo chinês. Neste artigo, apresento as bases do nacionalismo chinês do final do século XIX e das primeiras décadas do século XX, seguido pela análise do nacionalismo chinês sob o governo do PCCh desde 1949, e uma seção final na qual identifico as principais tendências do nacionalismo do partido-estado chinês contemporâneo. Com a riqueza e o poder atuais, o PCCh e a sociedade chinesa acreditam que é hora de restaurar o "lugar de direito" da China no mundo. O nacionalismo do partido-estado está remodelando o passado para projetar o futuro, mas ele não é um fato consumado.

Palavras-chave: China; Nacionalismo; Riqueza e Poder.

Recebido em: 14 abr. 2021 | Aceito em: 12 ago. 2021.


Palavras-chave


China; Nationalism; China Dream; Great Rejuvenation; Wealth and Power

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


Al Jazeera. (2021). China approves overhaul of Hong Kong’s political system. Al Jazeera. Retrieved from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/3/30/china-approves-overhaul-of-hong-kongs-political-system-reports [Accessed on: 3rd April, 2021].

Battacharya, A. (2019) ‘Chinese Nationalism Under Xi Jinping Revisited.’ India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 75(2), p. 245-252. doi:10.1177/0974928419841789.

Blanchette, J. (2021). ‘Chinese Nationalism and Neo-Maoism. An interview with Jude Blanchette.’ Georgetown Journal of Asian Affairs, Volume 6.

Breuilly, J. (1993) Nationalism and the State. Second Edition. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Buckley, C. (2020) China’s Combative Nationalists See a World Turning Their Way. The New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/14/world/asia/china-nationalists-covid.html [Accessed: 28th July 2021]

Callaham, W. A. (2004) ‘National Insecurities: Humiliation, Salvation, and Chinese Nationalism’, Alternatives, 29, p. 199-228

Carrai, M. (2021) ‘Chinese Political Nostalgia and Xi Jinping's Dream of Great Rejuvenation’, International Journal of Asian Studies, 18(1), 7-25. doi:10.1017/S1479591420000406

China. (n.d.) zhonghua renmin gongheguo bantu (中华人民共和国版图). Available at: http://www.gov.cn/test/2005-06/15/content_18252.htm [Accessed: 29th July 2021].

Cox, Lloyd. (2021) Nationalism: Themes, Theories, and Controversies. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.

Economist. (2021a) The party is eager to expand its influence within business. Available at: https://www.economist.com/special-report/2021/06/23/the-party-is-eager-to-expand-its-influence-within-business [Accessed: 29th July 2021].

Economist. (2021b) China’s rulers want more control of big tech. https://www.economist.com/business/2021/04/08/chinas-rulers-want-more-control-of-big-tech [Accessed: 29th July 2021].

Economy, Elizabeth. (2018) The Third Revolution: Xi Jinping and the New Chinese State. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Fairbank, J. K.; Goldman, M. (2008) China: uma nova história. 3 ed., Porto Alegre, RS: L&PM.

Freymann, E.; Wong, B. Y. S. (2021) ‘Young People in China Are Losing Faith in the West’. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from: https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/03/22/racist-attack-asian-americans-china-lost-faith-west/?fbclid=IwAR0BmZ6KWRZoDahhfXdv9vJIf3_sFO3IQrpJKidcJ3lM_GdCgMH56lNVGSw [Accessed: 1st April 2021]

Gertz, B. (2000) The China Threat: How the People’s Republic Targets America. Washington, DC: Regnery Pub.

Gries, P. H. (2004) China’s New Nationalism: Pride, Politics, and Diplomacy. University of California Press.

Hao, Z.; Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng. (2020) ‘State-led Chinese Nationalism: An Analysis of Primary School Textbooks.’ China: An International Journal, 18(4), p 27-48.

He, H. (2021) ‘China’s millennials, Generation Z leading nation away from Hollywood films, American culture, US brands’. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from: https://www.scmp.com/economy/china-economy/article/3126180/chinas-millennials-generation-z-leading-nation-away-hollywood?fbclid=IwAR0tPmtPdXexLJIBdEYgP550BE2m2OSnw9yUozGkMQ2G4svYDF8iTOsUYO0 [Accessed: 2nd April 2021]

Hobsbawm, E. (2021) On Nationalism. London: Little, Brown

Hussaini, S. R. (2020) ‘The Origins of Chinese Nationalism in Twenty First Century’, Journal of Social and Political Sciences, 3(2), 482-496.

Jacques, M. (2009) When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order. Second Edition. Penguin Books.

Lin, F. (2019). ‘The 2018 Constitutional Amendments Significance and Impact on the Theories of Party-State Relationship in China.’ China Perspectives (online), p. 11-21

Mahbubani, K. (2020) Has China Won? The Chinese Challenge to American Primacy. New York: Public Affairs, Hachette Book Group. ISBN: 978-1-5417-6812-3 (ebook).

Mitter, R. (2021) ‘The World China Wants: How Power Will—and Won’t—Reshape Chinese Ambitions’, Foreign Affairs.

Moser, D. (2016) A Billion Voices: China’s Search for a Common Language. Penguin eBooks.

Schell, O.; Delury, J. (2013). Wealth and Power: China’s Long March to the Twenty-first Century. New York: Random House.

Townsend, J. (1992) ‘Chinese Nationalism’, The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, (27), 97-130. doi:10.2307/2950028

Vasconcelos, D. de O. (2017) Por dentro do Dragão Vermelho: As fontes domésticas da Política Externa Chinesa na Era Xi Jinping. Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso para Especialista em Estudos Diplomáticos, Centro de Direito Internacional (CEDIN).

Wassertrom, J. (2005) ‘Chinese Students and Anti-Japanese Protests, Past and Present’, World Policy Journal, 22(2), 59-65.

Xi, J. (2012). ‘Remarks on the Occasion of Meeting with the Chinese and Foreign Press by Members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Eighteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China’. Retrieved from: http://www.china.org.cn/china/18th_cpc_congress/2012-11/16/content_27130032.htm [Accessed: 25th March 2021]

Zhao, S. (2013) ‘Foreign Policy Implications of Chinese Nationalism Revisited: the strident turn’, Journal of Contemporary China, DOI:10.1080/10670564.2013.766379.

Zhao, S. (2015) ‘Rethinking the Chinese World Order: the imperial cycle and the rise of China’. Journal of Contemporary China, published online: 11 May 2015.3.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.12957/rmi.2021.59051



Direitos autorais 2021 Mural Internacional

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.

 

Revista Mural Internacional | e-ISSN 2177-7314

PPGRI - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Relações Internacionais

Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, Pavilhão - João Lyra Filho, 9ºandar, Bloco F, sala 9037, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Cep: 20550-013 - Tel. fax: (021) 2334 0678 /// E.mail –ppgri.revista@gmail.com